Overview of gear processing machine tools

2022-06-23
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Overview of gear processing machine tools

gear processing machine tools are machine tools for processing the teeth of various cylindrical gears, bevel gears and other toothed parts. There are many kinds and specifications of gear processing machine tools, including small machine tools for processing gears with a diameter of several millimeters, large machine tools for processing gears with a diameter of more than ten meters, high-efficiency machine tools for mass production and high-precision machine tools for processing precision gears

gear processing machine tools are widely used in automobile, tractor, machine tool, engineering machinery, mining machinery, metallurgical machinery, petroleum, instrument, aircraft, spacecraft and other machinery manufacturing industries

ancient gears were formed by hand filing. In 1540, when making clocks and watches, toriano of Italy made a tooth cutting device using a rotary file; In 1783, Rene of France made a gear processing machine with a milling cutter and accessories for cutting rack and internal gear; Around 1820, white of England manufactured the first machine tool that could process both cylindrical gears and bevel gears. Machine tools with this performance developed again in the second half of the 19th century

In 1835, Whitworth of England obtained the patent of worm gear hobbing machine; In 1858, Schiller obtained the patent of cylindrical gear hobbing machine; After many improvements, it was not until 1897 that the German pford made a hobbing machine with differential mechanism that the problem of machining helical gears was successfully solved. After making gear shaped gear shaping cutter, filos of the United States made gear shaping machine in 1897

at the beginning of the twentiethcentury, due to the needs of the automotive industry, various gear grinding machines came out one after another. It was made into a shaving machine in the United States around 1930; It was made into a gear honing machine in 1956. Since the 1960s, modern technology has been applied to some advanced cylindrical gear machining machines, such as digital display to indicate the movement and cutting depth on large machine tools; In gear hobbing machine, gear shaper and gear grinding machine, electronic servo system and numerical control system are used to replace mechanical transmission chain and Exchange L, body and transmission gear; Programmable controller with fault diagnosis function is used to control work cycle and change cutting parameters; The digital control non-circular gear shaping machine and adaptive control gear hobbing machine are developed; An electronic sensor is used to detect the motion error of the transmission chain on the gear hobbing machine and automatically feed back and compensate the error

In 1884, Bill gram of the United States invented the straight bevel gear planer which was processed by the single planer according to the generating method; In 1900, bill of the United States designed a machine tool for milling straight bevel gears with double cutter heads

due to the needs of the automotive industry, the straight bevel gear planer with two planers was manufactured in the United States in 1905, and the spiral bevel gear milling machine was manufactured in 1913; In 1923, the quasi involute bevel gear milling machine appeared; In the 1930s, a gear broaching machine capable of broaching straight bevel gears at one time was developed, which was mainly used for the manufacture of automotive differential gears

In the 1940s, the spiral bevel gear grinding machine was developed to meet the needs of the aviation industry. In 1944, the Swiss erican company made the extended epicycloid bevel gear milling machine; Since the 1950s, a gear milling machine has been developed to process extended epicycloid bevel gears with a double cutter body combined end milling cutter in the face of the loss discs ordered by many old power plant customers

gear processing machine tools are mainly divided into two categories: cylindrical gear processing machine tools and bevel gear processing machine tools. Cylindrical gear processing machine is mainly used to process various cylindrical gears, racks and worm gears. Commonly used gear hobbing machine, gear shaping machine, gear milling machine, gear shaving machine, etc. Gear hobbing machine uses hob to rough and finish straight teeth, helical teeth, herringbone gears and worm gears according to generating method. It has a wide processing range and can achieve high precision or high productivity; Gear shaper is used to process spur and helical gears and other tooth shaped parts with gear shaper cutter according to generating method. It is mainly used to process multiple gears and internal gears; The gear milling machine is processed by the forming milling cutter according to the indexing method. It is mainly used to process instrument gears with special tooth shape; Gear shaving machine is a kind of high-efficiency machine tool which uses gear shaving cutter to finish machining gears; Gear grinding machine is a high-precision machine tool for finishing hardened cylindrical gear or gear cutter tooth surface with grinding wheel; Gear honing machine is a machine tool that uses the free meshing of honing wheel and machined gear to eliminate hardened gear burrs and other tooth surface defects; The gear extruding machine is a machine tool that uses the free meshing of the extruding wheel with high hardness and no cutting edge with the workpiece to grind the micro unevenness on the tooth surface to improve the accuracy and smoothness; Gear chamfering machine is a machine tool for rounding the tooth ends of sliding gears engaged internally and externally. It is an indispensable processing equipment for the production of gear boxes and other gear shifting mechanisms. Cylindrical gear processing machine tools also include gear hot rolling mill and gear cold rolling mill

bevel gear processing machine tools are mainly used to process the teeth of bevel gears such as straight teeth, helical teeth, spiral teeth and extended epicycloid teeth

straight bevel gear planer is a machine tool for rough and fine machining straight bevel gears with paired gear planers according to the generating method. Some machine tools can also plane helical bevel gears, which is most widely used in small and medium-sized batch production

the double cutter head straight bevel gear milling machine uses two cutter heads with staggered cutter teeth to mill the left and right tooth surfaces in the same tooth groove according to the generation method, which has high production efficiency and is suitable for batch production. Due to the relative movement between the milling cutter head and the workpiece in the non tooth length direction, the bottom of the milled tooth groove is circular arc, and the machining module and tooth width are limited. This machine tool can also be equipped with an automatic loading and unloading device to realize single machine automation

the straight bevel gear pull milling machine is a machine tool that cuts a tooth groove from the solid wheel blank by forming method during the rotation of a large diameter pull milling cutter head. It is the most productive machine tool among the bevel gear cutting machine tools. Because the cutting tools are complex and expensive, and each kind of workpiece requires a special cutter head, it is only suitable for mass production. Machine tools are generally equipped with automatic loading and unloading devices

spiral bevel gear milling machine is a machine tool for rough and finish machining spiral bevel gears and hypoid gears with spiral bevel gear milling cutter head according to the generation method. It has variants such as precision cutter, rough cutter and gear drawing machine

spiral bevel gear grinding machine is a machine tool used to grind hardened spiral bevel gears to improve accuracy and smoothness. Its structure is similar to that of spiral bevel gear milling machine, but it uses grinding wheel instead of milling cutter head and is equipped with grinding wheel dresser to grind hypoid gears

the extended epicycloid bevel gear milling machine is a machine tool that uses the extended epicycloid bevel gear milling cutter head, or its large end milling cutter head with double cutter bodies, and continuously divides and cuts teeth according to the generating method. During gear cutting, both the milling cutter head and the workpiece make continuous rotary motion, and the table makes feed motion to process a workpiece. The table swings back and forth once. The continuous rotation of the milling cutter head and the workpiece makes the workpiece obtain the continuous graduation of a certain number of teeth and form the tooth length curve. The rotation of the shaking table is combined with the additional motion of the workpiece to generate generating motion, so that the workpiece can obtain the tooth profile curve

the taper hob used for quasi involute bevel gear milling machine is a machine tool that continuously divides and cuts teeth according to the generating method. During gear cutting, the taper hob first cuts at the big end, and then cuts at the end with its smaller diameter. In order to ensure the consistent cutting speed in the whole cutting process, the machine tool controls the speed of the hob by means of the stepless speed change device. During gear cutting, the shaking table, the hob and the workpiece all make continuous rotary motion. When machining a workpiece, the shaking table reciprocates once. The rotation of the cradle and the workpiece generates generating motion through the differential mechanism, so that the workpiece can obtain the tooth profile curve with equal height along the tooth length

the supporting equipment of the bevel gear processing machine tool includes a grinder for grinding the cutting edges of the milling cutter head and broach head, a gear lapping machine for lapping the paired bevel gears, a bevel gear rolling inspection machine for checking the meshing contact of the paired bevel gears, and a quenching press for preventing the heat treatment deformation of the teeth, etc

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